Biological and Pathological Waste Incinerator

Biological and Pathological Waste Incinerator is defined as human and animal remains, such as organs, animal carcasses, and solid organic wastes from hospitals, laboratories, slaughterhouses, animal pounds, and similar sources. This type of waste contains up to 85 percent moisture and not more than 5 percent incombustible solids, and has a heating value as low as 2330 kJ/kg 1,000 BTU per pound as fired.


•Site Work
Provide site work, structural foundations, and floor slabs as required.

•Roof Loads
Design roof purloins and beams for dead load plus an additional 0.24 kPa 5 psf uniformly distributed load and an additional 22.4 kN 5000 lb roving concentrated load plus drift factor where applicable]. Determine wind uplift forces in accordance with ASCE/SEI 7-05 Section 6 using a 100-year recurrence interval and conditions.

•Floor Loads
Provide operating floors, stairs and access platforms for operation and maintenance, designed for
4.79 kPa 100 psf live load plus dead load.
Design equipment platforms for 7.18 kPa 150 psf live load plus a concentrated load of equipment weight at installed location, plus dead load.

1.3.4 Lateral Loads
Include wind and seismic loading in the design exposure SEISMIC PROTECTION FOR MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
Furnish equipment meeting the noise criteria specified herein through equipment design, acoustic insulation, use of inlet silencers, or other means provided under this contract.

1.3.6 Controls and Instrumentation
a.Include in control equipment and instruments, burners and fan controls, time clocks, relays, operating switches, indicating lights, gauges, motor starters, fuses, alarms, and circuit elements of the control system, and other controls and instruments necessary for unit operation, with system in accordance with the FM APP GUIDE.

b.Mount the controls and instruments on one or more free-standing control panels conveniently located to the incinerator, and placed to allow operating personnel effectively monitor incinerator operations.
Provide control system with proportioning control of the primary air supply and fuel supply to the secondary burner], and temperature indicator controllers or other indicators providing a visual indication for safe loading of the incinerator and excessive high temperature conditions which may require control by the operator.
Interlock automatic control circuit systems and manual switches to prevent hazardous conditions or the discharge of excessive amounts of air pollutants.

•Control Panel
Provide a sheet steel, weather tight panel, conforming to UL 50. Provide
NEMA 4 control panels for outdoor installations with electric strip heaters for condensation control. Flush mount all controls, instruments, and other equipment at the factory and test the assembly prior to shipment. Furnish a lock and 2 keys. All controls and instruments shall be identified with nameplates.

•Draft Gauges
Provide draft gauges conforming to ASME B40.100 with a diaphragm or bellows actuating system, a circular scale, a zero adjustment screw, and suitable shutoff cocks.

•Pressure Gauges
Provide pressure gauges conforming to ASME B40.100, pressure detecting class, single Bourdon tube style, suitable for detecting air pressure.

Provide sensors conforming to ISA MC96.1, Type K, in the combustion chamber or as otherwise directed, with a thermocouple suitable for continuous operation and control at temperatures up to 1260 degrees C 2300 degrees F accurate to 0.75 percent, of sufficient length to be inserted 150 mm 6 inches into the furnace. Provide the thermocouple with an adjustable flange and a high- temperature metal alloy, closed-end, protecting tube suitable for insertion into the furnace without support of the projecting end. Supply thirty meters one hundred feet of 1.52 mm 16- gauge compensating lead wire with a weatherproof braid for connecting the thermocouple to the instrument, so that the installed unit indicates gas passage temperatures and controls burner operation.

1.3.7 Operating Tools
Provide and locate as indicated, operating and firing tools, such as shovel or coal scoop, hoe, rake, slice bar with metal handles, regularly used for firing and cleaning incinerators, and a firing tool rack. Provide steel rack, including hooks and other appropriate means for storing the tools in a neat manner.

Owner and/or his representative approval are required for submittals. SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
Shop Drawings: Detail Installation Drawings
Product Data: Incinerator Controls and instrumentation Test Reports: Instrument readings.
Performance: Adjusting and Testing.
Certificates: Incinerator Operation and Maintenance Data Operating and Maintenance Instructions: Data Package.


2.10.1Asbestos Prohibition
Asbestos and asbestos-containing products are prohibited.

2.10.2Detail Installation Drawings
Submit detail installation drawings for the incinerator, foundation, stack, waste feed system, fuel burning equipment, ash removal system, flue gas cleaning system, and controls. Include in detail drawings all equipment settings and connections, complete electrical wiring, controls, and connection diagrams and indicate clearances required for maintenance and operation.

Perform all welding in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX and AWS D1.1/D1.1M by welders certified to have passed qualification tests using procedures covered in AWS B2.1/B2.1M.

2.10.4Special Tools
Furnish all special tools for assembly, adjustment, setting, or maintenance of equipment specified as standard accessories.

Protect all equipment delivered and placed in storage from the weather, humidity and temperature variations, dirt and dust, or other contaminants.

Submit spare parts data for each different item of material and equipment specified, after approval of detail drawings, Include a complete list of parts and supplies, with current unit prices and source of supply, and a list of the spare parts recommended by the manufacturer.


Provide materials and equipment which are the standard products of a manufacturer regularly engaged in the manufacture of the product and that essentially duplicate items that have been in satisfactory use at least 2 years prior to bid opening.
a.Submit manufacturer’s product data, catalog cuts, illustrations, schedules, performance charts, instructions, brochures, diagrams, sound level data, calculations for gas retention times, combustion and air emissions data, and other information to verify compliance with requirements of the contract documents.
b.Provide each major component of equipment with the manufacturer’s name, address, type or style, model or serial number, and catalog number on a plate secured to the equipment
c.Enclose or guard belts, pulleys, chains, gears, couplings, projecting setscrews, keys, and other rotating parts located where any person may come in close proximity thereto. Guard and cover high-temperature equipment and piping located where they could endanger personnel or create a fire hazard with insulation of type specified for service.
d.Provide items such as a catwalk, stair, ladder, and guardrail where required.

NOTE: Indicate the type and class of motor enclosure depending on the environment in which the motor is to be used.
Provide electrical motor-driven equipment as specified, complete with motors conforming to NEMA MG 1, motor starters, and controls, with enclosures as indicated. Provide electrical equipment, including motors and wiring with electrical characteristics as indicated or specified. Provide motor starters complete with thermal overload protection and other appurtenances
necessary for the motor control specified, and of sufficient size to drive the equipment at the
specified capacity without exceeding the nameplate rating of the motor. Provide manual or automatic control, protective or signal devices required for the operation specified, and any control wiring required for controls and devices specified but not shown.

NOTE: The incinerators should be capable of burning medical waste. The composition of Type 4 waste as indicated in the following table:


Type    Noncombustible Solids (Max % Content
by Weight)
Moisture Content (MAX)%    Heating Value J/kg
(BTU Per Pound
(Highly Combustible)
19,771,000 (8,500)

85    2,326,000 (1,000)

The medical waste to be disposed in the incinerator is a mixture of paper, plastics, Type 4 waste, etc., and is of a widely varying nature with a Btu content which may well exceed the usually reported value of 2,326,000 J/kg (1000 Btu per pound). Prior to developing final design of the incinerator, detailed waste classification should be made, amounts of glass, metal, paper, plastics, organic, rubber, cloth, wood, moisture, etc., in the waste and the variable joule (Btu) content.  The waste stream at each installation must be analyzed and the information should be utilized for the final design.
Provide an incinerator with a solid hearth in the primary combustion chamber where partial burning and conversion of the combustible organic matter occurs, and a secondary combustion chamber that consumes the combustible gases and entrained combustible particles, with gas-tight shell construction. Provide an incinerator suitable for indoor installation including totally enclosed electric motors, and corrosion and moisture protection, and equipped for mechanical charging and operation. Incinerator shall be a complete package-type unit, factory fabricated and assembled operating under negative air pressure and ready for attachment of all utility connections.

2.6.1Type of Waste
Provide an incinerator capable of burning typical medical waste including paper, plastics of various kinds, and a small fraction of Type 4 (Pathological) waste.

Provide incinerator with a capacity of not less than [75] kg per hour, based on operating the incinerator no more than 8 hours continuously per day, and to be suitable for burning medical waste parts which have a water content as high as 85 percent by weight.

Provide furnace with an inside volume, exclusive of the space occupied by the refractory hearths and walls, of not less than 2 cubic meters with a primary combustion chamber volume above the burning hearth of not less than 1.5 cubic meters, Provide a complete waste burning system including combustion air fan, primary and secondary burners, air distribution and burner controls, ducts, breeching, stack, bottom ash conveyor and collection, feed rams, fire tube water tube, air compressors, slurry pumps, water pumps, fly ash collection system.


2.5.8Weight Reduction

Provide an incinerator capable of reducing waste to an ash not to exceed 5 percent of the total combustible charges when tested as specified.

2.5.9Stack Discharge

Provide pollution control equipment to meet all applicable emission regulations and utilize the most stringent requirements.
Typical values are as follows or less:
Carbon Monoxide (CO): 50 ppmv, 12-hour average as measured by a Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS)
Particulate Matter: 0.013 gr/dscf (30 mg/dscm) as measured by EPA Reference Method 5; Opacity: 5 percent, 3-minute average as measured by a CEMS;
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): 45 ppmv, 12-hour average as measured by a CEMS;
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): 210 ppmv, 12-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 7 Hydrogen Chloride (HCL): 42 ppmv, or 97 percent reduction, 9-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 26
Total Hydrocarbons: 70 ppmv, 1-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 25 Mercury: 210 gr/106dscf (0.47 mg/dscm) or 85 percent reduction, 12-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 29;
Lead: 44 gr/106dscf (0.10 mg/dscm), 12-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 29
Cadmium: 22 gr/106dscf (0.05 mg/dscm), 12-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 29;
Dioxin/Furans: 35 gr/109dscf (1.9 ng/dscm) toxic equivalency of 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD, 12-hour average as measured by EPA Reference Method 23.
Correct all emission limits to 7 percent oxygen, dry basis. The following definitions were used above:
1-  Parts per million by volume (ppmv). 2-  Dry standard cubic feet (dscf);
3-  dry standard cubic meters (dscm); 4-  grams (gr);
5-  milligrams (mg);

Noise level at 305 mm 1 foot from any incinerator component shall not exceed 85 dBA. Provide sound dampening devices on equipment.


2.5.7Primary Chamber
Construct the primary chamber with a steel casing supported by a steel frame, and provide with insulation and refractory. Make the casing with 5 mm sheet steel minimum, conforming to ASTM A1011/A1011M and reinforced to withstand internal pressures without deflection or damage to refractory or other components of the incinerator. Construct the frame and all reinforcing members of steel conforming to ASTM A36/A36M. Provide a free-standing frame capable of supporting the weight of all components of the incinerator, including doors, burners, breeching, stack connections, and appurtenant assemblies without binding or warping. Make the frame and casing of all welded construction, completed and erected prior to installation of the

refractory and insulation. Perform all welding in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX and AWS D1.1/D1.1M. Provide all access doors and parts with seals to prevent emission of smoke or admission of significant amounts of air during incinerator operation, and a primary chamber with no openings which would permit leakage of waste fluids.

2.5.8Secondary Chamber
Provide a secondary chamber with an exterior casing not less than 5 mm conforming to ASTM A1011/A1011M, with insulation and refractory lining of the same class, type, and thickness required for walls in the primary chamber. Allow for a minimum dwell time of 0.8 seconds for any condition within normal operating limits.

Provide insulation conforming to ASTM C 612, Class 5 and designed to be used with masonry or reinforced concrete or noncombustible material, with a fire resistant rating of not less than 3 hours, to prevent damage to the foundation from excessive heat. As a minimum, provide insulation thickness to limit the temperature of the outer casing to 66 degrees C 150 degrees F maximum in an ambient temperature of 21 degrees C 70 degrees F when the unit is operating at full-rated capacity. Use insulating cement conforming to ASTM C 195 or ASTM C 196.

Provide heat-resistant plastic super-duty fireclay refractory conforming to ASTM C 27. The minimum thickness of plastic or cast able refractory is 110 mm 4 for walls and 110 for hearths. Attach refractory walls to the casing with alloy steel or refractory anchors to form a monolithic structure which will resist heat and support the walls with a safety factor of 4. Prevent bulging and destruction of refractory due to heat stress by reinforcing, expansion joints, ties, and anchors.

2.5.11Exterior Walls
Provide 4 mm sheet steel walls reinforced with steel framing and provided with door frames and mounted on structural steel skids.

Provide an abrasion resistant refractory hearth constructed of heat-resistant, thermal-insulating clay conforming to ASTM C 401, Class R plastic or cast able type, high-duty class, capable of supporting not less than twice the hourly burning rate and preventing leakage of waste fluids.

a.Provide doors for stoking, cleanout, and charging areas, with securely attached door frames. Construct doors and frames of steel conforming to ASTM A1011/A1011M. Line doors, exposed to flame or direct heat of combustion gases, with the same type and thickness of refractory and insulation used in the combustion chamber.
b.Secure refractory to the doors so as to prevent sagging. Taper refractory edges to clear door frames during movement of swinging doors. Weld alloy steel hooked bars to door cover to anchor the refractory, to enable safe operation by one person, and maintaining temperature of door handles to permit operation of doors without gloves or other protective devices.

c.Interlock charging doors with primary burners and air supply so that burner ignition shuts off and under fire air dampers close when doors open. Gasket door closure should be with non- asbestos packing.
d.Provide counter-weights for vertically operated doors requiring a maximum manual operating force of 133 N 30 pounds maximum. Provide guillotine-type doors which lift completely off the seals to affect opening. Provide full-swing-type doors with an integral smaller feed door having a minimum rectangular clear opening of 610 by 610 mm 24 by 24 inches or a minimum circular clear opening of 762 mm 30 inches diameter.] Include hasps or brackets for doors to permit locking.

•Stoking and Cleanout Doors. Provide tight fitting cleanout doors which allow access for total cleanout, visual inspection of the entire interior of the incinerator, and prevent leakage of waste fluids.

•Mechanical-Charging Doors
Provide inner and outer guillotine, or swing or automatic sliding, mechanical- charging doors type, with the inner or charging door opening with operation of the charger. Interlock the inner and outer doors to prevent simultaneous opening during incinerator operation. Insulate and line the combustion chamber door with refractory material. Construct the outer door of the same materials as the exterior casing of the incinerator. Doors shall be provided with means for manual operation.

2.4.1Observation Ports
Provide two observation ports, 75 mm 3 inches in diameter, on the charging door for viewing the primary combustion chamber during operation.
Construct observation ports of black steel or cast-iron tube or duct having a minimum thickness of 3.42 mm 10 gauges and provided with heat-resistant glass cover, or an angular steel frame and closure plate with handle, for operation without gloves or other protective devices. Extend the tube or duct from the exterior of the casing to not less than one-half the thickness of the refractory lining, and weld the frame to the casing, to provide a gas-tight refractory opening.

Provide a controller actuated refractory lined damper which regulates secondary, under fire, and over fire air, constructed of steel conforming to ASTM A1011/A1011M, not less than 1.52 mm 16-gauge thick, operating without noise or flutter, and electric motor.

2.4.3Bypass Dampers
Construct bypass dampers to provide a leakage rate of less than 1 percent at 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure.

2.4.4Test Holes and Test Groups
Indicate and clearly identify an instrument test group near every thermocouple well to connect portable equipment to verify installed equipment.
Provide test holes, near the test group shown on the contract drawings, and fit with standard weight, 50 mm 2 inch diameter, black steel pipe welded to the casing. Extend the sleeve from the exterior of the casing to not less than one-half the thickness of the refractory lining. Form the

refractory opening from the end of the pipe sleeve to the interior wall surface to shield the end of the sleeve from reflected heat, and fit with a brass screw cap. Submit a copy of the Instrument Readings to the Contracting Officer.


Provide a complete flue gas cleaning system (FGC) consisting of a Powdered activated carbon injection system, and a acid gas scrubber system capable of continuous operation operation compatible with the incineration capacity and schedule specified.

2.3.1System Components
Provide each scrubber system with bulk storage silos, unloading facilities for trucks, dust control filters, mixing equipment, slurry tanks, pumps, compressors, induced draft fans, and all piping and valves necessary to provide a complete and operating system.

2.3.2Product Storage Capacity
Provide bulk storage capacity for all required products to sustain a minimum operating period of one week between deliveries.


Provide access openings at strategic locations for inspection, cleaning, and maintenance, all being a gas tight quick-opening type. Elevate the adsorbers to permit 2130 mm 7 feet access under the lowest point which would collect particulates. Locate an access door at this lowest point to permit removal of accumulated particulate; designed to open with an accumulation of material above it.

Construct adsorber with at least 4.76 mm 3/16 inch thick steel plate, ASTM A36/A36M or ASTM A283/A283M, grades B, C, or D. Space external stiffeners as required to provide support for the vessel skin. Seal weld all structurally welded seams. Design joints to be assembled air and water tight. Design adsorber for a gas pressure of plus or minus 635 mm 25 inch water gage, or as required by the system operation, whichever is greater, and with any panel deflection not exceeding L/240.

•Gas Flow
Provide the gas inlet to each module with internal deflector plates designed to provide uniform gas distribution and velocities through the unit.

2.3.4Product Handling and Preparation System Provide a complete system to receive, store, and supply product to the spray-dry adsorbers, with the capability of supplying sufficient product for the incinerator operating at 120 percent of full load. Include in the system, but do not limit to, product storage silo complete with vibrating bin discharger, flexible connections, gravimetric feeders, attrition slaker, [lime] slurry and water Pumps, slaked product storage tank, and agitators.

2.3.5Powdered Activated Carbon
Provide powdered activated carbons (PAC) specifically made for the removal of mercury, dioxins, and furans with a high percentage of pore sizes in the 20 to 50 angstrom range, with PAC completely devolatilized.

2.3.6Pebble Quick Lime Analysis
Provide flue gas cleaning equipment capable of meeting emission requirements specified using lime

2.8.2 Burners
a.Provide LPG burners for the primary and secondary combustion chambers, with each burner as a complete assembly including fuel and control systems, and accessories.
Provide a primary burner with an input capacity capable for maintaining a minimum continuous temperature in the secondary chamber of 871 degrees C (1600 degrees F), and a minimum continuous temperature of 760 degrees C (1400 degrees F) at the roof near the exit of the primary chamber.

b.Provide electrically spark-ignited burners regulated by a variable set point indicator-controller adjustable from minus zero to 1371 degrees C (minus 17 to 2500 degrees F) to operate within the temperature limits recommended by the manufacturer.
c.Provide controllers actuated by a thermocouple or shielded bimetallic sensor, with the mounting, flame shape, and characteristics of each burner suitable for the incinerator chamber in which the burner is installed. Flame impingement on the incinerator wall is not permitted.
d.Provide each burner with FM APP GUIDE listed and approved flame
failure protection. Sight the flame safeguard sensor to detect only the burner flame for which it is designed, with burners which are easily moved out of firing position for inspection, cleaning, adjustment, and maintenance. Locate thermocouples in the primary and secondary chamber, suitable for a maximum temperature of 1260 degrees C 2300 degrees F. Provide a continuous secondary burner which modulates from high to low fire, based on the temperature of the secondary chamber. Provide an on/off firing burner in the primary chamber.

Important: minimum height of the chimney should less than 15 meter measured from roof of top roof of incinerator room and not less than 5 meter higher than any building in distance of 1km from incinerator room, also the outlet velocity of flue gases should not less than 7 Meter per second
1Provide a sectional, circular cross section exhaust stack of the type, size, and number of sections in accordance with the requirements of the stack and refractory manufacturer to adequately support the refractory lining, permit expansion, and prevent cracking of the refractory; conforming to NFPA 211. Secure the refractory to the casing by steel anchors.
2Attach a corrosion-resistant steel spark arrestor fabricated of 1.21 mm 18-gauge, 13 mm 1/2 inch mesh wire screen to the top of the stack. Provide a corrosion-resistant steel weather cap. The

temperature of the casing shall not exceed 50 degrees C in an ambient temperature of 21 degrees C 70 degrees F. Provide adequate support for any stack installed on top of the incinerator without placing any of the load on the refractory walls of the incinerator.

Provide connectors to connect the incinerator to the stack unless the stack is attached directly to the incinerator, in accordance with NFPA 211.
Locate the connector at a minimum clear vertical distance of 2450 mm 8 feet above the floor.

•Draft Equipment
Provide equipment which supplies the correct amount of air to permit complete controlled combustion. Include forced draft fans, draft gauges, dampers, damper actuators, linkage, and appurtenances necessary to maintain a negative draft in primary chamber in order to provide optimum performance at all operating rates.

•Air Ducts
Introduce combustion under fire air to the primary chamber below the waste material through ducts located along the side of the hearth]. Control over fire air with automatically controlled air intake ports in the back wall, for completing combustion of combustible materials into gases, or for reducing operating temperatures.
Provide dampers to set the air for the proper burning of the waste materials. Size ducts to minimize pressure drops, constructed of sheet steel conforming to ASTM A1011/A1011M, with all seams and connections air tight.

Provide a fan capable of delivering sufficient air for burners and not less than 150% than the required by manufacturer.
The centrifugal type with forward-curved blades, and statically and dynamically balanced fan wheels Comply with the fan standards of AMCA 99, and CID A-A-59222, centrifugal furnace fans, rated for flow rate, pressure, power, speed of rotation, and efficiency in accordance with AMCA 210. Provide induced draft fans, where required, designed for handling hot flue gas at the maximum outlet temperature of the incinerator.

2.8.7 Ash Removal
Provide the unit with provisions for automatic removal of the ash through the cleanout door upon completion of the burnout and cool-down cycles. Ash removal shall be as indicated for use with portable containers.


Clean the inner surfaces of the outer casing of the incinerator, the exterior surfaces of the outer casing, the control panel, and piping, except corrosion-resistant steel, to base metal for removal of oil and rust before primer is applied at the factory.

1.4.2Factory Painting
Factory paint equipment and component items with the manufacturer’s standard finish. Provide a weather resistant finish on all items located outside the building.


After becoming familiar with all details of the work, verify dimensions in the field, and advise the Contracting Officer of any discrepancy before performing the work.

Provide the services of the manufacturer’s representative experienced in the installation, adjustment, and operation of the equipment specified, who will supervise the installing, adjusting, and commissioning and compliance testing of the equipment.

Install equipment and material as indicated and in accordance with manufacturer’s written instructions and NFPA 82, with combustion air supply and ventilation in accordance with NFPA 31 or NFPA 54 as applicable.

a.Construct the incinerator foundation using CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE. Extend the foundation a minimum of 1 m 3 feet beyond the incinerator on 3 sides and not less than 2.5 m 8 feet on the side where the ashes are removed. Install the incinerator in accordance with manufacturer’s written instructions.
b.Make proper provision for expansion and contraction between incinerator foundation and floor; pack the joint with suitable non-asbestos rope and fill with suitable compound that will not become soft at a temperature of 40 degrees C 100 degrees F.
c.Provide incinerator supports which permit free expansion and contraction of each portion of the incinerator without placing undue stress on any part of the incinerator or setting. Set anchor bolts accurately, and of adequate length to install the incinerator. When embedded in concrete, provide anchor bolts with plates welded on the head and protect against damage until the equipment is installed.

1.5.7Stack Support
NOTE: Indicate design wind force that the stack will have to withstand. Also include in structural design seismic resistance, and coordinate with subparagraph Lateral Loads under paragraph
Provide stack support in accordance with NFPA 82 and NFPA 211, as applicable. Provide vertical and lateral supports for exterior chimneys to withstand wind forces.