small capacity burners

Oxygen correction is computed as:

Es =     21 — Os    x EM
Wout = mass emission rate of POHC from the stack before the discharge to the atmosphere. The typical dioxin and furan concentration in the emissions should not exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.

Notice:
5.     The incineration has to be in good working order in any way times and must be used if any part fails. Any malfunction ought to be recorded in a log book and reported on the appropriate authority. The incineration operator and also all appropriate staff must be educated to the fulfillment of the appropriate control authority.

11    Housekeeping    The site where the incineration is constructed needs to:

1.     Have running water.

3.     Have lighting if 24hrs operation
2.     Be fitted with secondary burner/s burning gas or very low sulphur liquid fuel or any suitable fuel. Ensure secondary air supply is controlled efficiently.
Fabric filters
4.     Have fly ash containerization and storage prior to disposal.

12    Health & Safety (Protective Gear)    1.     Staff handling waste needs to be well trained on safe handling of toxic wastes
A smoke density meter/recorder
21 – OM

Where:    Es    = Calculated emission concentration in the standard percentage oxygen concentration
OM    = measured oxygen concentration

10    Operation    1.     Materials destined for incineration must be of known origin and makeup and must be only incinerated in a furnace that’s filed for the particular type of waste. A document must be kept of the amount, type and origin of the waste to be incinerated.
A gas flow meter/recorder
Arsenic                                       As
8.     Ensure both main and the combustion temperatures are kept until all waste was fully combusted

5    Particulate Removers    A mechanical particulate collector has to be integrated after secondary combustion chamber for removal of particulate pollutants entrained in the flue gas flow. The particulate collectors may comprise any of the following or some combination thereof:

Cyclone separator
3.     Whenever the previous charge hasn’t been fully combusted in the event of batch feeding. Until such time as the accession of more waste won’t cause the design parameters of the incineration to be exceeded.

3    Primary Combustion Chamber    The main combustion chamber needs to:

1.     Be approved as the main combustion zone.
A strong particulate meter/recorder
Electrostatic precipitators
2.     Have a solid floor.
Nickel                                           Ni
The chimney should have a minimum height of 10 meters above floor level and also clear the maximum point of the building by not less than 3 meters to get many roofs. The topography and height of adjacent buildings within 50 meters radius ought to be taken into account. If possible the chimney ought to be visible to the operator in the feeding area.
Hold room / charging
Hydrochloric                                HCL
2.     In the event the minimum combustion temperatures aren’t maintained.
Barium                                        Ba
Thallium                                     Tl

Chromium                                  Cr
Tin                                               Sn
Manganese                                  Mn
Primary Combustion Chamber.
The Combustion efficiency is computed as follows;

C.E=             % CO2           x 100
5.     Ensure residence time isn’t less than two (2) minutes.
2.     Be equipped with a burner/s burning gas/fuel or very low sulphur liquid fuels. Other combustion methods will likely be judged on merits. Ensure main air supply is controlled efficiently
Os    = Regular oxygen concentration
Acid Gas Scrubbers
Any other instrument or measurement that may be considered necessary

8    Location / Siting    1.     Must be sited in accordance with the relevant local municipal jurisdiction planning scheme, the topography of the area and be compatible with assumptions in the neighborhood,

2.     Must be placed in a suitably ventilated area.

9    Emission Limits    1.     Combustion efficiency:

Combustion efficiency (CE) shall be at least 99.00%
Percent CO2 + CO

2.     The temperature of the primary chamber shall be 800 ± 50o C

3.     The secondary chamber  gas residence time shall be at least 1 (one) second at 1050 ± 50o C, with 3% compacted in the stack gas.

4    Opacity of the smoke must not exceed 20% Viewed from 50 meters with naked eyes
4.     The incineration must not be overcharged.
4.     Ensure minimum exit temperature is not less than 850oC

4    Secondary Combustion Chamber (Afterburner).     The secondary combustion chamber needs to:

1.     Be approved as secondary combustion zone.

1    Basic Plant Design    An approved plant has to have four distinct sections that demonstrate three fundamentals of Turbulence, Residence Time and Temperature are inbuilt in the plant design .The regulated segments might include but not limited to:

Entire plant layout.
Particulate Scrubbers
6.     Verify the gas temperature as measured against the inner wall in the secondary room & not in the flame zone, is less than 1100oC.

7.     Verify the oxygen content of the emitted gases is less than 11 percent.
Where: Win = bulk feed rate of the POHC from the waste stream fed into incineration, and
Beryllium                                    Be
5.     Each of the emission into the air aside from steam or water vapour has to be odourless and free from mist, fume and droplets. The Authority will require the certificate holder have tests carried out by a licensed institution to determine stack and/or ground level concentrations of these substances.

Cadmium and compounds since Cd
3.     The incineration has to be preheated to working temperature prior to charging any waste.
Antimony                                    Sb
Vanadium                                     V
Two Feeding And Charging    Controlled sterile, mechanical or automated feeding methods have to be used which won’t affect the air temperature in the main and secondary chambers of the incineration negatively. Until the minimum temperatures are reached.
4.     Make sure fire contact with all gases is attained.
3.     The accession of dilution air after combustion in order to attain the requirement of these guidelines is unacceptable. The minimum exit rate must be 10 m/s and at least two times the surrounding wind speed (Efflux speed = wind speed x 2) whichever is greater to ensure no down washing of exiting gases.

5.     Stage for the measurement of emissions shall be provided.

7    Instrumentation    Instrument for determining the inside wall temperature rather than burner flame temperature has to be provided for both the primary and secondary chambers. An audible and visible alarm has to be installed to warn the operator once the secondary temperature falls to below the required temperature. Besides the above these instruments might also be required.
Cobalt                                         Co
Copper                                        Cu
5.      There should be no smoking or eating on the site.

Cadmium and compounds as     Cd
Mercury                                      Hg
Thallium                                     Tl

Chromium                                  Cr
Beryllium                                    Be
Arsenic                                       As
Antimony                                    Sb
Barium                                        Ba
Lead                                            Pb
Silver                                          Ag
Cobalt                                         Co
Copper                                        Cu
Manganese                                  Mn
Tin                                               Sn
Vanadium                                     V
Nickel                                           Ni
Hydrochloric                                HCL
Hydrofluoric acid                         HF
Sulphur dioxide                           S02

7.    A 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) in the waste feed where:

DRE = [(Win – Wout)/Win]*100
Where: Win = mass feed rate of the POHC in the waste stream fed to incineration, and
Wout = mass emission rate of POHC in the stack prior to the release to the atmosphere.

8.    The average dioxin and furan concentration in the emissions should not exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.

Note:
All pollutant concentrations must be expressed at Oo C and 1.013 x 10 5 N/m2, dry gas and 11% oxygen correction.

Oxygen correction is computed as:

Es =     21 – Os    x EM
21 – OM

Where:    Es    = Calculated emission concentration at the standard percentage oxygen concentration
EM    = Measured emission concentration
Os    = Standard oxygen concentration
OM    = measured oxygen concentration

10    Operation    1.    Materials destined for incineration should be of known origin and composition and must be only incinerated in a furnace that is registered for the particular type of waste.

2.    A record must be kept of the quantity, type and origin of the waste to be incinerated.
3.    The incineration must be preheated to working temperature before charging any waste.
4.    The incineration must not be overcharged.
5.    The incineration must be in good working order at all times and must not be used if any component fails. Any malfunction should be recorded in a log book and reported to the relevant authority.

6.    The incineration operator and all relevant staff must be trained to the satisfaction of the relevant control authority.

11    Housekeeping    The site where the incineration is built must:

1.    Have running water.
2.    Have a solid floor.
3.     Have lighting if 24hrs operation
4.    Have fly ash containerization and storage before disposal.

12    Health & Safety (Protective Gear)    1.    Staff handling waste must be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
2.     Staff must be provided with appropriate  protective gear such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles.

3.     Caution and Warning signs must be provided.
4.     Fire fighting equipment must be provided
5.     There should be no smoking or eating on the site.

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