4 Secondary Combustion Chamber (Afterburner). The secondary combustion chamber needs to:
1. Be approved as secondary combustion zone.
8. Ensure both main and the gas temperatures are maintained until all waste has been fully combusted
5 Particulate Removers An mechanical Leaking collector has to be incorporated after secondary combustion chamber for removal of particulate pollutants entrained in the flue gas flow. The particulate collectors can include any of the following or some combination thereof:
2. Staff should be provided with proper protective equipment like, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles. Caution and Warning signs should be provided.
2 Feeding And Charging Controlled hygienic, mechanical or automatic feeding methods have to be used which won’t influence the atmosphere temperature in the main and secondary chambers of the incineration negatively.
No waste is to be fed to the incineration:
1. Until the minimal temperatures are reached.
The stack/ chimney.
3. The incineration has to be preheated to working temperature prior to charging any waste.
Any other device or measurement that may be considered necessary
8 Location / Siting 1. Must be sited in accordance with the applicable local municipal jurisdiction planning scheme, the topography of the area and be harmonious with premises in the area,
2. Must be housed in a suitably ventilated room.
9 Emission Limits 1. Combustion efficiency:
Combustion efficiency (CE) shall be at least 99.00%
5. The incineration has to be in good working order in any way times and should be used if any component fails. Any malfunction ought to be recorded in a log book and reported on the relevant authority. The incineration operator and also all relevant staff must be educated to the fulfillment of the relevant control authority.
11 Housekeeping The website where the incineration is constructed needs to:
1. Have water.
Acid Gas Scrubbers
2. Be fitted with secondary burner/s burning gas or low sulphur liquid fuel or some other suitable fuel.
3. Ensure secondary air distribution is controlled economically.
Primary Combustion Chamber.
5. There should be no smoking or eating on the website.
Cadmium and compounds as Cd
1 Fundamental Plant Design An accepted plant has to have four different sections that demonstrate three fundamentals of Turbulence, Residence Time and Temperature are inbuilt in the plant layout .The regulated segments may include but not restricted to:
Entire plant layout.
21 – OM
Where: Es = Calculated emission concentration at the Normal percentage oxygen concentration
2. Be equipped with a burner/s burning gas/fuel or low sulphur liquid fuels. Other combustion approaches will be judged on merits.
3. Ensure main air distribution is controlled economically
6 Chimney / Stack 1. The chimney should have a minimum height of 10 meters above ground level and clear the highest point of the building by not less than 3 meters for many roofs. The topography and height of adjacent buildings within 50 meters squared ought to be taken into account. If possible the chimney ought to be visible to the operator in the feeding place.
6. Verify the gas temperature as measured against the inside wall at the secondary room & not at the fire zone, is less than 1100oC.
7. Verify the oxygen content of the emitted gases is less than 11 percent.
Secondary Combustion Chamber.
Where: Win = bulk feed rate of the POHC in the waste stream fed to incineration, and
Hydrofluoric acid HF
3. Whenever the previous charge hasn’t been fully combusted in the event of batch feeding.
4. Until such time as the addition of more waste won’t cause the layout parameters of the incineration to be surpassed.
3 Primary Combustion Chamber The main combustion chamber needs to:
1. Be approved as the main combustion zone.
Sulphur dioxide S02
7. A 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) in the waste feed where:
DRE = [(Win – Wout)/Win]*100
Wout = mass emission rate of POHC in the stack prior to the release to the atmosphere. The typical dioxin and furan concentration at the emissions shouldn’t exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.
4. Have fly ash containerization and storage prior to disposal.
12 Health & Safety (Protective Gear) 1. Staff managing waste needs to be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
The temperature of the primary chamber shall be 800 ± 50o C
3. The secondary chamber gas residence time shall be at least 1 (one) second at 1050 ± 50o C, with 3 percent Oxygen in the stack gas.
The Combustion efficiency is calculated as follows;
C.E= percent CO2 x 100
Materials destined for incineration must be of known origin and composition and must be just incinerated at a furnace that is filed for the particular type of waste. An inventory must be kept of the quantity, kind and origin of the waste to be incinerated.
Hold room / charging
2. Have a good floor.
3. Have lighting if 24hrs operation
A carbon monoxide and/or oxygen meter/recorder
Os = Regular oxygen concentration
A smoke sensitivity meter/recorder
A solid particulate meter/recorder
2. If the minimal combustion temperatures aren’t maintained.
3. The addition of dilution air following combustion in order to attain the requirement of those guidelines is unacceptable.
4. The minimum exit velocity must be 10 m/s and at least twice the encompassing wind speed (Efflux velocity = end speed x 2) whichever is greater to guarantee down no washing of leaving gases.
5. Stage for the measurement of emissions shall be offered.
7 Instrumentation Instrument for determining the inside wall temperature rather than burner flame temperature has to be offered for both the primary and secondary chambers. An audible and visible alarm has to be installed to warn the operator when the secondary temperature drops to below the required temperature.
3. In addition to the above these instruments may also be required.
4. Fire fighting equipment should be provided
5. Ensure residence time isn’t less than two (2) seconds.
8. The average dioxin and furan concentration in the emissions should not exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.
All pollutant concentrations must be expressed at Oo C and 1.013 x 10 5 N/m2, dry gas and 11% oxygen correction.
Oxygen correction is computed as:
Es = 21 – Os x EM
21 – OM
Where: Es = Calculated emission concentration at the standard percentage oxygen concentration
EM = Measured emission concentration
Os = Standard oxygen concentration
OM = measured oxygen concentration
10 Operation 1. Materials destined for incineration should be of known origin and composition and must be only incinerated in a furnace that is registered for the particular type of waste.
2. A record must be kept of the quantity, type and origin of the waste to be incinerated.
3. The incineration must be preheated to working temperature before charging any waste.
4. The incineration must not be overcharged.
5. The incineration must be in good working order at all times and must not be used if any component fails. Any malfunction should be recorded in a log book and reported to the relevant authority.
6. The incineration operator and all relevant staff must be trained to the satisfaction of the relevant control authority.
11 Housekeeping The site where the incineration is built must:
1. Have running water.
2. Have a solid floor.
3. Have lighting if 24hrs operation
4. Have fly ash containerization and storage before disposal.
12 Health & Safety (Protective Gear) 1. Staff handling waste must be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
2. Staff must be provided with appropriate protective gear such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles.
3. Caution and Warning signs must be provided.
4. Fire fighting equipment must be provided
5. There should be no smoking or eating on the site.